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[写作技巧] 如何在英文写作中避免性别歧视

更新时间:2011-12-04    来源/发布:www.en369.cn    作者/编辑:英语作文网

近四十年来,尽管非性别歧视语还没有达到非不可的程度,但它毕竟已进人日常会话和写作的主流之中。随便翻开一张英美的报纸,或瞧一下五花八门的宣传广告,就会发现supervisor(工头,领班)替代了原来的foreman, workman‘s compensation(工人赔偿金)变成了worker‘s compensation; sales rep, sales associate或seller(推销员)取代了常用词salesman等。为此,笔者将有关资料整理如下,供英语学习者参考。请注意,所选用的例句,除个别注明外,均选自Rosalie Maggio编写的The Nonselist Word Finder: A Dictionary of Gender-Free Usage (Maggio, 1989)。1.尽量不用通性代词he,除了明确地指代一个男性人物时,都要设法避免使用之。可以根据语境需要,选用下列替换方式:
1)采用复数形式
Sexist: When bathing a baby, never leave him unattended.
Revised: When bathing babies, never leave them unattended.
给婴儿洗澡时,一定不能让他们无人照料。
2)用we/us/our改写原句
Sexist: From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs.
Revised: From each of us according to our abilities, to each of us according to our needs.
各尽所能,按需分配。
3)改用第二人称、
Sexist: No man knows his true character until he has run out of gas, purchased something on the installment plan and raised an adolescent.
Revised: You don‘t know what your true character is until you have run out of gas, purchased something on the ! installment plan and raised an adolescent.
只有当汽车大的油用光了,按分规付款方式购物和抚养大一个孩子时,人的本来品性才会显露出来。
4)改用被动语态
Sexist: One who, when he has the choice of two evils, chooses both.
Revised: One who, when given the choice of two evils, chooses both.
一个在两种恶行之中要作出选择就两者都选的人。
5)完全省略代词
Sexist: What a person thinks of after he becomes a departee?
Revised: What a person thinks of after becoming a departee?
一个人离去后,会作何感想呢?
6)用冠词替代
Sexist: Can a critic give his opinion of an omelet without being asked to make one?
Revised: Can a critic give an opinion of...?
评论家议论煎蛋时难道到非要他去自己煎鸡蛋吗?
7)用someone, one, the one, no one等替代
Sexist: He who can take advice is sometimes superior to him who can give it.
Revised: Someone who can take advice is sometimes superior to the one who can give it.
接受忠告者有时胜过发出忠告者。
8)使用he and she或his and her,但使用的次数不宜太多。s/he仅可用于备忘录(memos), 便条(notes), 或者非正式的交谈之中。
9)用名词或上下文中用过的同义词替换
Sexist: To find a friend one must close one eye - to keep him, two.
Revised: To find a friend, one must close one eye - to keep a friend, two.
想找朋友;就得睁一只眼,闭一只眼;想留住朋友,就得双眼都闭上。
2.尽量使用那些包括两性在内的词,即无性别之分的词(gender-free words),
例如: child, teacher, officer(警官),people, worker, immigrant(移民),voter(投票者,选民), coach(教练),church member(教友), sale rep(推销员),grand parent(外/祖父或祖母),leader, evening student, employee (雇员),testee(考生,应试者),engineer,customers(顾客), dealer(交易者,商人),clerk(职员,办事员),civilian(平民),scientist, operator(接线员,办事员),patriot(爱国者),person, planner(策划者,计划者), politician(政客), producer(生产者、制造者), tutor(家庭教师,导师,[美国]助教),reporter,writer,chief executive(首席行政长官),everybody, expert等.

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