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城市里的种族隔离 Segregation in cities

更新时间:2012-08-30    来源/发布:www.en369.cn    作者/编辑:英语作文网

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Segregation in cities

城市里的种族隔离

Living in black and white

黑白时代

How different races inhabit cities

不同的种族如何共居于城市

Segregation: A Global History of Divided Cities. By Carl Nightingale.

《种族隔离:城市分裂的全球史》,卡尔·南丁格尔著。

Carl Nightingale'S history of segregation claims to be a detailed account of how cities were, for millennia, divided along racial lines. But it is really a history of how colonialism affected the construction, governance and policing of great urban areas.

卡尔·南丁格尔的这本著作讲述了种族隔离的历史,并据称详细描绘了几千年来,城市是如何在种族界限中分裂的。 但事实上,它也是一段有关殖民主义如何影响大城市的建设、政府管治和政策制定的真实历史。

For the past 500 years white Europeans have often used their economic and military power to build and rebuild urban landscapes in order to grab the safest, healthiest and nicest parts for themselves. Even in places where colonial rule is now a distant memory, many urban environments cannot be understood without recalling their foundation as a fortified enclave for Europeans bent on procuring commodities or opening markets. Calcutta (now Kolkata) was set up in 1690 by a member of Britain's East India Company, in defiance of the local Muslim overlord. It later vied with London as the biggest metropolis in the British empire.

在过去的500年,为便于强取豪夺最安全、最健康、最好的地区,欧洲白人殖民者往往动用经济和军事力量来建造或改建当地城市的风貌。 甚至现在,某些地区的人们觉得殖民统治是一段遥远的记忆。 但是,如果要完全明白很多城市的环境,我们就不得不追溯至这些城市被创立的时期,满脑子只想着采购商品、开拓市场的欧洲人将这些城市隔离为巩固飞地。 加尔各答(印度城市,原为Calcutta ,现为 Kolkata),由不列颠东印度公司1690年创立,目的在于挑战当地穆斯林霸主。 随后,加尔各答开始与伦敦竞争大英帝国的最大大都会的头衔。

Both colonialism itself and the divided cities it spawned reached their zenith on the eve of the first world war. As Europeans migrated in large numbers to far-flung corners of their expanding empires, the need to keep them comfortable, both physically and psychologically, meant that other groups were treated with ever greater ruthlessness. Mr Nightingale shows how the roots of apartheid in South Africa, for example, are to be found much earlier than the 1948 election victory of the National Party; they lie in the colonial project which led to the creation of Johannesburg half a century earlier with white and non-white areas. This was made much more explicit after 1948—and this shocked a world where racial ideologies and colonialism were being challenged and dismantled. But segregationist zeal did not flare in a vacuum; it built on an existing system of allocating space which reflected the needs of an imperial elite.

第一次世界大战前夕,殖民统治和割裂的城市均发展到鼎盛时期。 当时,大批迁徙至版图不断扩大的大英帝国的偏远地区的欧洲人,他们需要物质上和精神上都有舒服的状态, 这意味着他们变本加厉的无情对待其他种族。 书中,南丁格尔先生道出为何人们认为南非种族隔离制度的起源比1948年国民党大选成功得更早。 其实,隔离制度早就存在于隔离计划中,早在半个世纪以前,割裂为白人区和非白人区的约翰尼斯堡(位于南非东北部)的创建,就是拜隔离制度所赐。 1948年后,种族隔离制度更加毫不遮掩地暴露出来——这让世界为之震惊,因为当时的种族主义和殖民主义的观点都受到挑战,有的也被废除。 但是,人们对种族隔离的热情并非空穴来风。隔离制度存在于空间已经被分配的现存体系中,而且反映着帝国精英的需求。

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