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Obituary 逝者

更新时间:2012-09-05    来源/发布:www.en369.cn    作者/编辑:英语作文网

Obituary

逝者

Claude Lévi-Strauss

克洛德·列维-斯特劳斯

Claude Lévi-Strauss, anthropologist, died on October 30th, aged 100.

人类学家克洛德·列维-斯特劳斯于10月30日逝世,享年100岁。

Before Claude Lévi-Strauss revolutionised the discipline, anthropology in France, and generally elsewhere, was a matter of ill-attended lectures in small, cold halls, and the collection of feathers and fish-hooks as evidence of the quaint divergences of the “primitive” tribes of mankind. He made it as fashionable as philosophy and poetry, both of which he wove through his ethnographical studies as perhaps only French intellectuals can. The proper study of mankind was indeed man: not in his politicking, warring or banking, but naked, painting his body, hunting bears, snaring birds. Here lay the universal truths about how the human mind worked and what man was.

在克洛德·列维-斯特劳斯变革这门学科之前,无论在法国, 还是世界其它地方,人类学普遍是下面的情形:又小又冷的讲堂, 冷冷清清的课堂,各色的羽毛和鱼钩(作为人类“原始”族群文化多样性的证物)。 列维-斯特劳斯让人类学变成了和哲学、诗歌一样时髦的东西,并把这两种元素融入进自己的民族学著作中,这恐怕只有法国的知识分子才办得到。 研究人类就应该纯粹去研究人:不是披着政客、士兵或银行家外衣的那类人,而是赤身裸体、肤着油彩、猎熊捕鸟的这类人。 这里存在着关于人类思考模式及人之本性的普遍真理。

Obedient to Rousseau, who always “set him aflame”, Mr Lévi-Strauss observed men from afar. He never got too near or stayed too long in his rare stints of field-work, mostly in Brazil in the 1930s; he grasped only a few words of the languages, and avoided the “hateful” distractions of individual characters. In the bitter phrase of Jean-Paul Sartre, with whom he sparred for years, he preferred to view men like ants. He focused not on their differences but on the deep-lying patterns and systems in everything they did, until he could proclaim that all tribal myths were reducible to one formula, and that all human thought, “savage” or not, was built up from binary opposites such as hot and cold, night and day, raw and cooked, good and bad. Round these concepts whole societies, as well as stories, were organised.

列维-斯特劳斯是卢梭的忠实信徒,后者的思想经常让他“热血沸腾”,所以,斯特劳斯是用一种超然于物外的态度观察的人类。 在他屈指可数的几次田野调查中(多数都是1930年代在巴西完成的),他从不和当地的族群走得太近,也不久留, 所以土著语也说不了几句,并极力避免让“可恶”的个人性格特点干扰自己的研究。 和他口上交锋多年的让-保罗·萨特曾用辛辣的语言评价列维-斯特劳斯,说他喜欢把人类看成是一堆蚂蚁。 斯特劳斯做观察时,会忽略掉族群间的差异,而是注重隐秘于所有行为下面共通的模式和系统,直到他可以将所有族群的神话都归到同一个方程式。 除此之外,人类所有的思考——无论是“野蛮人”的想法,还是“文明人”的思维——都是一种二元对立结构,像冷和热、白天和黑夜、生食和熟食、好和坏。 所有社会,无一例外,都是围绕这些对立的概念构建而成的,各种的神话故事就更不用说了。

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